Ruminants are more sensitive to Vitamin B12 deficiency than nonruminants, in large part because they are highly dependent on gluconeogenesis to meet their tissue glucose needs.
In young ruminants (preruminant lambs and calves) up to the ages of six to eight weeks, the rumen is not fully developed and not functional for the synthesis of Vitamin B12.
In contrast, in adult domestic ruminants, even the ciliated protozoa present in the rumen need vitamin B12 , which they obtain from ruminal bacteria that synthesize Vitamin B12 . The production of vitamin B12 by
ruminal microflora, is generally considered suffcient to avoid deficiency symptoms in ruminants, although, it has been shown that the ruminal microflora extensively destroys dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 .
Therefore, they require source of Vitamin B12.
Animals with vitamin B12 deficiency show nonspecific clinical symptoms, such as reduced food intake, retarded growth, muscle wasting, rough coat and thickening of the skin. Reproductive disorders and decreased milk yield are often observed (1)
Hydroxocobalamin is a medication used in the management, protection and treatment of vitamin B12 . It is the active forms of Vitamin B12 . (2)

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